VBCSS Data Informs New USPSTF Breast Cancer Screening Recommendations

April 30, 2024

The United States Preventative Services Task Force (USPSTF) has finalized its latest round of recommendations; suggesting that women begin biennial breast cancer screening at age 40 and continue screening through age 74. These recommendations are supported in part by VBCSS research in collaboration with Cancer Intervention Surveillance Modeling Network Breast Working Group (CISNET BWG) and the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium (BCSC). The USPSTF used six different CISNET models that used VBCSS and BCSC data as key inputs on the performance of mammography screening. The results showed that biennial screening with Digital Breast Tomosynthesis (DBT) averted a median of 8.2 breast cancer deaths per 1000 women screened versus no screening. They associated biennial DBT screening in women aged 40 to 74, with a 30% breast cancer mortality reduction.  To read the USPSTF official recommendations, click here. VBCSS director Brian Sprague contributed to the CISNET collaborative modeling decision analysis for the USPSTF. VBCSS and BCSC research was highlighted in the breast cancer screening evidence review commissioned by the USPSTF.

Population Attributable Risk of Advanced-Stage Breast Cancer by Race and Ethnicity

December 12, 2023

In a new Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium (BCSC) study published in JAMA Oncology, researchers calculated the population attributable risk proportions (PARPs) for advanced breast cancer by race/ethnicity. Using the large BCSC cohort, the study evaluated 904,615 women aged 40 to 74 (with a median age of 57 years) undergoing 3,331,740 annual or biennial screening mammograms. The study found that regular screening is not always sufficient to prevent an advanced breast cancer diagnosis.

BCSC Extends Invasive Breast Cancer Model

November 30, 2023

The Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium (BCSC) has extended its version 2 invasive breast cancer risk model to include body mass index (BMI), second-degree family history of breast cancer, and age at first live birth. The new version 3 model estimates a woman’s five- and ten-year risk of developing invasive breast cancer based on her age, race and ethnicity, first- and second-degree family history, breast density, history of benign breast biopsy, BMI, and age at first live birth.

Supplemental Magnetic Resonance Imaging Plus Mammography Compared to Magnetic Resonance Imaging or Mammography by Extent of Breast Density 

November 7, 2023

In a new Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium (BCSC) study published in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute, researchers evaluated whether screening breast MRI plus mammography improves screening outcomes compared to MRI or mammography alone for women with dense versus nondense breasts. Using the large BCSC cohort, the study evaluated 52 237 women aged 40-79 years who underwent 2611 screening MRIs alone and 6518 supplemental MRI plus mammography.

HealthDay Reports on Sprague Study of Supplemental Screening After Mammography

June 13, 2023

According to a study by Green and Gold Professor in Surgical Research Brian Sprague, Ph.D., professor of surgery and biochemistry, and colleagues, many women at high risk of screening mammography failure do not undergo supplemental screening after mammography, HealthDay News reported.

Breast Density Notification Laws Should Consider Body Mass index

June 8, 2023

In a new Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium (BCSC) study published in Cancer, Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention, researchers evaluated whether differences in body mass index (BMI) account for differences in the prevalence of dense breasts by race and ethnicity. Using the large BCSC cohort, the study evaluated more than 2.6 million breast density measurements from 866,000 women aged 40 to 74 years and without a personal history of breast cancer performed between January 2005 and April 2021 at 140 radiology facilities around the country. The study found that clinically important differences in the prevalence of dense breasts across racial and ethnic groups that remained after adjusting for age, menopausal status, and BMI.

Across Multiple Screening Rounds, Digital Breast Tomosynthesis has Lower Recall Rates and Detects more Cancers than Digital Mammography

May 31, 2023

Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) has been widely adopted for breast cancer screening, comprising 46% of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration–accredited mammography units as of October 2022.  DBT dissemination has been supported by studies reporting a higher cancer detection rate and lower recall rate compared with digital mammography (DM) screening examinations, but most DBT examinations included in these studies have been the woman’s first DBT examination.  A new study from the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium examined the performance of DBT vs. DM screening on successive screening rounds, using data on 523,485 DBT and 1,008,123 DM screening examinations from 58 breast imaging facilities at five regional breast imaging registries.

Sprague is Optimistic about New Breast Cancer Screening Guidelines, says WCAX-TV

May 10, 2023

A federal health task force now recommends that all women with an average risk of breast cancer start screening every other year beginning at age 40 — rather than at age 50, as was recommended in the previous update in 2016, WCAX-TV reported. Brian Sprague, Ph.D., professor of surgery and biochemistry, hopes this will reverse the decline in breast cancer screening across all age groups — including those who were supposed to continue getting mammograms — that UVM Cancer Center research has shown for the past several years.

US Radiologists in Community Practice Demonstrate Better Performance Interpreting Digital Breast Tomosynthesis than Digital Mammography Screening Exams

April 17, 2023

After gaining U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval in 2011, digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) was rapidly adopted in the U.S. and is now the most popular breast cancer screening exam. In a study published in Radiology, the BCSC aimed to establish new screening performance benchmarks for DBT and evaluate performance trends over time in U.S. community practices. 

UVM Cancer Center Members Identify a Unique Population of Cells in Breast Cancer Patients

April 7, 2023

An interdisciplinary collaboration between UVM Cancer Center members including Jonathan Gordon, Ph.D., Mark Evans, Ph.D., Prachi Ghule, Ph.D., Kyra Lee, Pamela Vacek, Ph.D., Brian Sprague, Ph.D., Donald Weaver, M.D., Gary Stein, Ph.D., and Janet Stein, Ph.D., led to the discovery of a distinct population of mesenchymal stromal/stem-like cells (MSCs) in invasive breast cancer tumors. 

NBC5 Reports on Study by Nowak, Sprague, et al. Showing Drop in Breast Cancer Screenings

March 30, 2023

Researchers at the UVM Cancer Center released the findings of a study showing fewer women being screened for breast cancer, NBC5 reported. The study shows that Vermont had the second-largest drop in the entire country in screenings for women over the age of 40 between 2009 and 2018. “In 2009, the U.S. Preventative Services Task Force issued new guidelines around breast cancer screening,” said Sarah Nowak, Ph.D., assistant professor of pathology and laboratory medicine at the Larner College of Medicine, who was part of the research team. Before the 2009 guideline change, all women over the age of 40 were advised to have screenings for breast cancer at least once every one to two years; however, the 2009 recommendations said only women between ages 50-74 needed to be screened that frequently. “We would expect to see that the guidelines would lead to decreased screening for women in their 40s and women 75 and older, but what we found was that it’s also leading to decreased screening for women ages 50 to 74,” Dr. Nowak said. The research team, which also included Brian Sprague, Ph.D., professor of surgery, biochemistry, and radiology, found that women in Vermont, in all age groups, were being screened at almost two times less than the national average. Missing recommended mammograms could mean a later breast cancer diagnosis and less positive outcomes, Nowak warned. The study was recently published in the American Journal of Preventive Medicine.

BCSC Model Predicts Risk of Screen-Detected DCIS According to Clinical Risk Factors and Mammography Screening Interval

March 7, 2023

Detection of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) by mammography screening is a controversial outcome with potential benefits and harms. Because DCIS can be a precursor to invasive breast cancer, the detection and treatment of DCIS may reduce the risk of subsequent invasive disease; yet there is also concern that a substantial fraction of screen-detected DCIS may never have led to invasive cancer if left untreated (“overdiagnosis”).  A new study from the BCSC sought to develop a 6-year risk prediction model for screen-detected DCIS according to mammography screening interval and women’s risk factors.

VBCSS receives funding to assess artificial intelligence for mammography interpretation and risk prediction

November 7, 2022

The VBCSS is part of a new Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium (BCSC) research project seeking to use artificial intelligence algorithms to improve the early detection of breast cancer and better identify women at higher risk for an advanced or second breast cancer who need additional screening. The new $15 million award from the National Cancer Institute to the BCSC supports analysis of mammography images collected at participating BCSC registries, including the VBCSS, and use of CISNET breast cancer simulation models to project long-term impacts on breast cancer mortality.

VBCSS trainee receives Outstanding Research Publication award

November 2, 2022

Serena Murphy, MD, won the award for Outstanding Research Publication by a resident at the 2022 University of Vermont Larner College of Medicine's Excellence in Research Celebration.  Dr. Murphy won for her paper on "Gradual adoption of needle biopsy for breast lesions in a rural state", which was completed under the mentorship of Michelle Sowden, DO, and Brian Sprague, PhD, using data from the VBCSS.  Dr. Murphy finished her surgical residency at UVM in June is now doing a colorectal surgery fellowship the University of California, Irvine.  Congratulations Serena!

Prioritizing Screening Mammograms for Immediate Interpretation and Diagnostic Evaluation Based on Risk of Recall

October 26, 2022

In a new BCSC study published in the Journal of the American College of Radiology, researchers analyzed 2,674,051 screening mammograms from 925,777 women aged 18–89 years from 2012 to 2020 interpreted by 644 radiologists at 126 radiology facilities and resulted in 235,569 recalls.  The study found that time since prior mammogram and age were the most important risk factors associated with high and very high risk of being recalled for additional workup regardless of facility-level characteristics. Recall rates were very high (21.3/100) for baseline mammograms and for women with five or more years since their prior mammogram (15.1/100). Women aged 50-years or younger and women with dense breasts also experienced increased recall rates.

VBCSS study demonstrates reduction of advanced breast cancer with 3D mammography

July 6, 2022

In a study of 504,427 women undergoing more than 1.3 screening mammograms – the first study of this size and scope - the VBCSS teamed up with four other mammography registries across the country in the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium to show that the rate of late-stage breast cancer was reduced among women undergoing breast cancer screening with digital breast tomosynthesis compared to those undergoing 2D digital mammography.  The findings were published in JAMA.

Race Associated with Diagnostic Delays in Women with Abnormal Breast Cancer Screening

June 28, 2022

After abnormal mammography screening results, women should undergo timely diagnostic breast imaging and, if warranted, breast biopsy. Delays in diagnostic work-up for breast cancer greater than 30 days can lead to significant anxiety and delays greater than 90 days are associated with worse patient clinical outcomes. BCSC researchers performed a multi-level analysis to examine which individual-, neighborhood-, and health care-level factors were associated with differences in timely diagnostic resolution by race and ethnicity following abnormal screening. In a large national cohort of 45,186 women with a recommendation for biopsy after abnormal screening, relative to White women, Black women experienced 22% higher risk of no biopsy within 30 days and 20% higher risk of no biopsy within 90 days after abnormal screening. 

3D Mammography Technique Benefits Some Women, Not All

June 15, 2022

Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) or 3D mammography was developed with the expectation it would improve detection of breast cancer in women with dense breasts and decrease false-positive results. BCSC researchers examined whether DBT would decrease the rate of interval or missed cancer and advanced cancer (either detected on the screen or within one year of a normal screen) compared to digital mammography or 2D mammography. 

Women's Breast Density Knowledge Varies Between Women with Dense and Non-Dense Breasts

April 14, 2022

In a new BCSC study published in The Journal of the American College of Radiology, researchers assessed accuracy of women’s breast density knowledge. Previous work had shown mixed results in women’s understanding of breast density but none had incorporated clinical records to confirm accuracy of personal density knowledge.

UVM Cancer Center Investigators Publish the Breast Pre-Cancer Atlas

January 18, 2022

VBCSS investigators Donald Weaver and Brian Sprague partnered with other UVM Cancer Center Researchers and scientists and clinicians at the University of California-San Francisco, the University of California-Davis, and the University of California-San Diego to develop a multimodal breast pre-cancer atlas based on their characterization of the mutational, transcriptional, histological, and micro-environment landscape of thirty-nine patient tumors.

VBCSS study produces risk calculator for advanced breast cancer

January 13, 2022

The VBCSS contributed to a new risk prediction model that estimates a woman's 6-year risk of developing advanced breast cancer risk based on clinical risk factors and her frequency of mammography screening.  The risk model was developed in a collaboration amongst Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium registries and can be used to decide how often women should be screened and whether supplemental imaging should be considered. The findings were published in Journal of the National Cancer Institute. iPhone and Android apps and a website-based app are available to run the risk model calculation.

UVM Researchers Help Identify Impact of COVID-caused Delays in Breast Cancer Screening

November 23, 2021

New research from the VBCSS in collaboration with the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium (BCSC) found that from March to September 2020, breast biopsies and detected cancers at U.S. BCSC facilities dropped sharply, compared with the same span a year earlier. Biopsies declined by 23 percent and detected cancers by 24 percent – findings that the research team attributes mostly to the postponement of routine screening mammograms as the COVID-19 pandemic took hold. 

UVM medical student awarded Summer Research Fellowship for VBCSS Project

April 6, 2021

UVM medical student Mikaela Mohardt was named one of the recipients of the 2021 Summer Student Fellowships in Cancer Research from the University of Vermont Cancer Center.  Her project will investigate collagen organization as a novel predictor of malignant potential in pre-invasive breast cancer, using data and specimens collected via the VBCSS. Congratulations Mikaela!

VBCSS leads collaborative study of national mammography trends during the pandemic

March 31, 2021

A new study published in the Journal of National Cancer Institute looking at US mammography screening rates during the first 5 months of the pandemic found both a strong rebound in breast cancer screening rates and a concerning cumulative deficit in mammograms due to missed appointments, as well as uncovering disparities when looking at screening according to race.  The study included data from Vermont along with data from 5 other breast imaging registries across in the country in the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium.

VBCSS Director interviewed about declining cancer mortality rates in the United States

February 3, 2021

VBCSS Director Dr. Brian Sprague appeared on WCAX Channel 3 news to comment on a recent report describing an accelerated decline in cancer mortality rates in the United States.  Dr. Sprague discussed the contributions of tobacco control efforts and new screening and treatment advances, in addition to ongoing challenges to cancer control in Vermont.

Translational VBCSS study examines novel prognostic markers in pre-invasive breast cancer

January 11, 2021

A new study from the VBCSS examines collagen organization in the breast tumor microenvironment in relation to long term outcomes after a pre-invasive breast cancer diagnosis.  The study was a collaboration with the University of Wisconsin Laboratory for Optical and Computational Instrumentation, which used multiphoton microscopy to characterize individual collagen fibers in human breast cancer specimens identified through the VBCSS.  Using data on up to 15 years of follow-up, the investigators found that risk of disease progression was lower among cases with greater collagen fiber width and fiber density, whereas risk was elevated among cases with higher fiber straightness.  The results may have implications for precision medicine strategies for management of early stage breast cancer.

VBCSS receives National Cancer Institute funding to study the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on breast cancer

August 6, 2020

The VBCSS received new funding from the National Cancer Institute to evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the delivery of breast cancer screening and diagnostic imaging.  These funds will support rapid analysis of detailed breast imaging and cancer detection data during the pandemic at participating BCSC registries and use CISNET breast cancer simulation models to project the long-term consequences of reduced screening utilization on breast cancer mortality.

VBCSS collaborative study reports improved breast cancer screening with digital breast tomosynthesis

March 30, 2020

Research findings, published in JAMA Network Open and led by VBCSS Director Brian Sprague, Ph.D., show that breast cancer screening with digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT, also known as 3D mammography) improves breast cancer screening performance among most radiologists.  Compared with conventional 2D mammography, DBT on average has higher cancer detection rates and lower recall rates for additional imaging. The research team, a collaboration across the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium (BCSC), looked at variation in DBT performance across radiologists, and found that while most radiologists reduced recall rates through its use, not all did.

VBCSS awarded grant to study screening ultrasound  

March 1, 2020

The VBCSS has received a new R01 grant from the National Cancer Institute to evaluate the effectiveness of supplemental ultrasound screening for women with dense breasts.  The five year grant is a collaboration among 10 institutions across the United States, led by VBCSS Director Brian Sprague, PhD, and co-Principal Investigator Natasha Stout at Harvard School of Public Health.  The study plans to use clinical data on more than 100,000 screening ultrasound exams from the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium (BCSC) and two established computer simulation models from the Cancer Intervention and Surveillance Modeling Network (CISNET).

VBCSS study investigates trends in breast density assessment 

June 1, 2019 

A new study led by VBCSS Director Brian Sprague, PhD, was published in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute describing patterns in breast density assessment following recent changes in breast imaging practice.  Using data from more than 3 million mammograms interpreted at 144 facilities participating in the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium, it was found that patterns in breast density assessment were similar before and after the release of the new BI-RADS density classification guidelines, and were also similar on digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) exams compared to conventional digital mammography exams.  Clinicians, researchers, and policymakers may reasonably expect stable density distributions across screened populations despite changes to the BI-RADS guidelines and implementation of DBT.

VBCSS student intern Sophie Mulrow awarded

April 16, 2019

Sophie Mulrow has been a work-study student with the VBCSS for all four years of her undergraduate studies at UVM.  Today she was awarded second place in the 2018-2019 UVM Student Employee of the Year competition.  She was recognized for her valuable contributions to the development and testing of new patient matching programs that the VBCSS now uses to integrate data from multiple healthcare facilities across Vermont.  Congratulations Sophie for being recognized out of over 3000 UVM student employees!  

VBCSS Director recognized with Dean's Excellence in Research Award

October 30, 2018

VBCSS Director Dr. Brian Sprague received the Mid-Career Investigator Award at the University of Vermont Larner College of Medicine's "Dean's Excellence in Research" event.  The award recognized the impact of Dr. Sprague's epidemiologic research on our understanding of breast cancer risk and breast cancer screening.  The event highlighted research being conducted by faculty, postdoctoral trainees, and graduate students within the college, with a Keynote Address given by Elaine Ostrander, Ph.D., of the National Institutes of Health. 

Dr. Herschorn interviewed for Consumer Reports article on breast cancer screening

June 15, 2018

VBCSS investigator and UVMMC Director of Breast Imaging Dr. Sally Herschorn provided insights on digital breast tomosynthesis and breast ultrasound to Consumer Reports for their report on "What kind of breast cancer screening should you get?".  The report helps women make sense of the many options now available for breast cancer screening.

Department of Defense Patriot Award

April 4, 2018

The Office of Health Promotion Research received the Department of Defense Patriot Award to recognize its support of VBCSS staff member and Vermont Army Reserve National Guard combat medic Denis Nunez.  VBCSS administrator Dawn Pelkey accepted the award on behalf of the department.  The award recognizes employers for their outstanding support and flexibility in employing  service members who are frequently called to duty on short notice for critical missions in Vermont and around the world.  We thank Denis for his service to our country and his great work for the VBCSS!

VBCSS Awarded Grant to Study Digital Breast Tomosynthesis

December 15, 2017

The Vermont Breast Cancer Surveillance System has been awarded a grant from the National Cancer Institute to study a new technology in breast cancer screening.  Digital breast tomosynthesis improves breast cancer screening performance when added to conventional 2D digital mammography, though there are concerns regarding the extra radiation dose.  In a multi-center study, including a collaboration with the University of Pennsylvania, we will evaluate the clinical performance of a new approach in which digital breast tomosynthesis is used with synthetic 2D images instead of conventional 2D mammography.

VBCSS Investigators Contribute to Consumer Reports Article

October 20, 2017

Consumer Reports interviewed VBCSS investigators Dr. Brian Sprague and Dr. Sally Herschorn for a special report on what factors patients can consider when choosing a mammography facility for their breast cancer screening.

VBCSS Shares in $17 Million Grant to Improve Breast Cancer Screening and Surveillance

August 10, 2017

The Vermont Breast Cancer Surveillance System (VBCSS) will receive $1.8 million over 5 years as part of a $17 million grant to continue the work of the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium (BCSC). This program project grant renewal from the National Cancer Institute will support new investigation of different breast cancer screening and surveillance strategies using digital mammography, digital breast tomosynthesis (three-dimensional mammography), and breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

VBCSS Trainee Jacqueline Wade Wins Award for Research Project

May 16, 2017

The University of Vermont Department of Surgery held the 47th Annual Surgery Senior Major Scientific Program on May 4, 2017 to showcase the scholarly work of Larner College of Medicine students who will be specializing in surgery following graduation. Jacqueline Wade ’17 received the second-place prize for her project using VBCSS data, titled “The Impact of Mammographic Screening on the Use of Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer in Women Ages 40-49.”


Sprague Study Provides New National Benchmarks for Diagnostic Mammography Performance

February 28, 2017

The shift from film to digital technology for diagnostic mammography appears to have improved cancer detection rates for diagnostic mammography, but also has increased the abnormal interpretation rate, which may lead to more women undergoing biopsies for benign conditions, according to a new study published in the journal Radiology.


VBCSS trainee Vicki Hart wins Dean's Excellence in Research Award

November 1, 2016

Dr. Vicki Hart received a Dean's Excellence in Research Trainee Award for Outstanding Research Publication/Postdoctoral Fellows at the inaugural Larner College of Medicine's "Dean’s Excellence in Research Awards" event held on November 1, 2016.  Dean Morin and Associate Dean for Research Jensen presented Dr. Hart with the award for her paper titled "Trends in health related quality of life following a diagnosis of ductal carcinoma in situ", which was published earlier this year in Journal of Clinical Oncology.  Dr. Hart conducted the study as a postdoctoral researcher with the VBCSS.


VBCSS Collaboration with Simulation Modeling Groups Reveals Women with Dense Breasts Need More Frequent Screening

August 22, 2016

One size doesn’t fit all women in clothing, and neither should all women have mammograms on the same schedule, a new national study concludes.  A large computer modeling study led by Dr. Amy Trentham-Dietz of the University of Wisconsin Carbone Cancer Center found that the majority of women ages 50 to 74 can benefit if they have mammograms every two or three years. These women at average risk can retain most of the benefit of having mammograms less often and greatly reduce the chances of false positive results and unneeded biopsies and overdiagnosis, the study concludes.


Sprague Study Finds “Dense Breasts” Diagnosis Varies Widely Among Radiologists

July 22, 2016

In May, Vermont became the 28th state to adopt legislation mandating reporting of breast density information to patients. New University of Vermont (UVM) research - published July 18, 2016 in the Annals of Internal Medicine - shows that density assessment, as currently practiced, is subjective and highly variable across radiologists and warns of the implications of relying on the subjective measurement for clinical decision-making for breast cancer screening.

WCAX television segment


Sprague, Weaver & Stein to Study Mechanisms Underlying Idle vs. Progressive Early Stage Breast Cancers

November 11, 2015

While better technology and screening practices have led to the detection of more breast cancers in women—many of which fall into a broad category of early-stage cancer, including ductal carcinoma in situ or DCIS—researchers still do not understand why some of these early cancers remain idle, while others progress. With the support of a new, $3.7 million federal grant from the National Cancer Institute (NCI), an interdisciplinary team of researchers at the University of Vermont (UVM) Cancer Center will be looking to answer this question.

WCAX television segment


Sprague Study Finds Menopausal Status a Better Indicator than Age for Mammography Frequency

October 20, 2015

Premenopausal women, or women still experiencing menstruation, over age 40 may want annual mammograms to increase their chances of finding cancers earlier, suggests a new study that found a screening mammogram once every two years is safe for postmenopausal women at average risk of breast cancer. The results are reported in the October 21, 2015 Online First edition of Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) Oncology.


Weaver Study Examines Diagnostic Accuracy of Pathologists’ Interpretations of Breast Biopsies

March 17, 2015

The accuracy of pathologists’ diagnoses is an important and under-studied area. Now, a new study released this week in the March 17 issue of JAMA reports that pathologists interpreting breast biopsies have high levels of agreement on the most serious of breast cancers – invasive – and lower levels of agreement for biopsy interpretations of ductal carcinoma in situ, commonly referred to as DCIS, and atypical hyperplasia, also referred to as “atypia.”

WCAX television segment


Sprague Study Shows Supplemental Breast Cancer Screening for Women with Dense Breasts Not Beneficial

December 8, 2014

A new study released in the Annals of Internal Medicine and led by Brian Sprague, Ph.D., at the University of Vermont Cancer Center concludes that supplemental ultrasound screening for women with dense breasts would substantially increase costs with little improvement in overall outcomes. The research provides needed evidence on the benefits and harms of breast cancer screening options for women with dense breasts, and informs the discussion of national legislation that would mandate the disclosure of breast density information to women.

WCAX television segment