Publications on Incentives and Health

The topic of incentives and health is a major research priority of the Vermont Center on Behavior and Health. During their time with the Human Behavioral Pharmacology Laboratory, Drs Higgins, Heil and Sigmon have extensive experience researching the use of incentives to promote healthy behavior change and is described further below are Principal Investigators on numerous NIH-funded research projects on this topic.

Books/Manuals

  • Higgins, S.T., and Silverman, K. (Eds.). (1999). Motivating behavior change in illicit-drug abusers: Contemporary research on contingency-management interventions. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

  • Higgins, S.T., Silverman, K. & Heil, S.H. (Eds.). (2008). Contingency management in substance abuse treatment. New York, NY: The Guilford Press.

  • Budney, A.J., and Higgins, S.T. (1998). Treating cocaine dependence: A community reinforcement plus vouchers approach. Rockville, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse.

Original Experimental Studies in Peer-Reviewed Journals

  • Higgins, S.T., Stitzer, M.L., Bigelow, G.E., & Liebson, I.A. (1986). Contingent methadone delivery: effects on illicit opiate use. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 17, 311-322. PMID: 3757767
  • Budney, A.J., Higgins, S.T., Delaney, D.D., Kent, T., & Bickel, W.K. (1991). Contingent reinforcement of abstinence with individuals abusing cocaine and marijuana. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 24, 657-665. PMCID: PMC1279622
    Higgins, S.T., Delaney, D.D., Budney, A.J., Bickel, W.K., Hughes, J.R., Foerg, F., & Fenwick, J.W. (1991). A behavioral approach to achieving initial cocaine abstinence. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 148, 1218-1224. PMID: 1883001
  • Higgins, S.T., Budney, A.J., Bickel, W.K., Hughes, J.R., Foerg, F., & Badger, G. (1993). Achieving cocaine abstinence with a behavioral approach. American Journal of Psychiatry, 150, 763-769. PMID: 8480823
  • Higgins, S.T., Budney, A.J., Bickel, W.K., Foerg, F.E., Donham, R., & Badger, G.J. (1994). Incentives improve outcome in outpatient behavioral treatment of cocaine dependence. Archives of General Psychiatry, 51, 568-576. PMID: 8031230
  • Silverman, K., Higgins, S.T., Brooner, R.K., Montoya, I.D., Cone, E.J., Schuster, C.R., & Preston, K.L. (1996). Sustained cocaine abstinence in methadone maintenance patients through voucher-based reinforcement therapy. Archives of General Psychiatry, 53, 409-415. PMID: 8624184
  • Silverman, K., Wong, C.J., Higgins, S.T., Brooner, R.K., Montoya, I.D., Contoreggi, C., Umbricht-Schneiter, A., Schuster, C.R., & Preston, K.L. (1996). Increasing opiate abstinence through voucher-based reinforcement therapy. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 41, 157-165. PMID: 8809505
  • Bickel, W.K., Amass, L., Higgins, S.T., Badger, G.J., & Esch, R.A. (1997). Effects of adding behavioral treatment to opioid detoxification with buprenorphine. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 65, 803-810. PMID: 9337499
  • Roll, J.M., Higgins, S.T., Steingard, S., & McGinley, M. (1998). Use of monetary reinforcement to reduce the cigarette-smoking of persons with schizophrenia: A feasibility study. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 6, 157-161. PMID: 9608347
  • Budney, A.J., Higgins, S.T., Radonovich, K.J. & Novy, P.L. (2000). Adding voucher-based incentives to coping skills and motivational enhancement improves outcomes during treatment for marijuana dependence. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68, 1051-1061. PMID: 11142539
  • Higgins, S.T., Wong, C.J., Badger, G.J., Ogden, D.E., & Dantona, R.L. (2000). Contingent reinforcement increases cocaine abstinence during outpatient treatment and 1 year of follow-up. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68, 64-72. PMID: 10710841
  • Roll, J.M., & Higgins, S.T. (2000). A within-subject comparison of three different schedules of reinforcement of drug abstinence using cigarette smoking as an exemplar. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 58,103-109. PMID: 10669060
  • Sigmon, S.C., Steingard, S., Badger, G.J., Anthony, S.L., & Higgins, S.T. (2000). Contingent reinforcement of marijuana abstinence among individuals with serious mental illness: A feasibility study. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 8, 509-517. PMID: 11127422
  • Tidey, J.W., O Neill, S. C., & Higgins, S. T. (2002). Contingent monetary reinforcement of smoking reductions, with and without transdermal nicotine, in outpatients with schizophrenia. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 10, 241-247. PMID: 12233984
  • Heil, S.H., Tidey, J.W., Holmes, H.W., Badger, G.J., & Higgins, S.T. (2003). A contingent payment model of smoking cessation: Effects on abstinence and withdrawal. Nicotine and Tobacco Research, 5, 205-213. PMID: 12745493
  • Alessi, S.M., Badger, G.J., & Higgins, S.T., (2004). An experimental examination of the initial weeks of abstinence in cigarette smokers. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 12, 276-287. PMID: 15571445
  • Heil, S.H., Alessi, S.M., Lussier, J.P., Badger, G.J. & Higgins, S.T. (2004). An experimental test of the influence of prior cigarette smoking abstinence on future abstinence. Nicotine and Tobacco Research, 6, 471-479. PMID: 15203781
  • Higgins, S.T., Sigmon, S.C., Wong, C.J., Heil, S.H., Badger, G.J., Donham, R., Dantona, R.L., & Anthony, S. (2003). Community reinforcement therapy for cocaine-dependent outpatients. Archives of General Psychiatry, 60, 1043-1052. PMID: 14557150
  • Higgins, S.T., Heil, S.H., Solomon, Bernstein, I.M., L.J., Lussier, J.P., Abel, R.L., Lynch, M.E. & Badger, G.J. (2004). A pilot study on voucher-based incentives to promote abstinence from cigarette smoking during pregnancy and postpartum. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 6, 1015-1020. PMID: 15801574
  • Lussier, J.P., Higgins, S.T., & Badger, G.J. (2005). Influence of the duration of abstinence on the relative reinforcing effects of cigarette smoking. Psychopharmacology, 181, 486-495. PMID: 16034556
  • Sigmon, S. C. & Higgins, S.T., (2006). Voucher-based contingent reinforcement of marijuana abstinence among individuals with serious mental illness. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 30, 291-295. PMID: 16716843
  • Budney, A.J., Moore, B.A., Rocha, H.L., & Higgins, S.T. (2006). Clinical trial of abstinence-based vouchers and cognitive-behavioral therapy for cannabis dependence. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 74, 307-316. PMID: 16649875
  • Higgins, S.T., Heil, S.H., Dantona, R., Donham, R., Matthews, M., & Badger, G.J. (2007). Effects of varying the monetary value of voucher-based incentives on abstinence achieved during and following treatment among cocaine-dependent outpatients. Addiction, 102, 271-281. PMID: 17222282
  • Secades-Villa, R., Garcia-Rodriguez, O., Higgins, S.T., Fernandez-Hermida, J.R. & Carballo, J.L. (2007). Community reinforcement approach plus vouchers for cocaine dependence in a community setting in Spain: Six-month outcomes. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 34, 202-207. PMID: 17512158
  • Chivers, L.L., Higgins, S.T., Heil, S.H., Proskin, R.W. & Thomas, C.S. (2008). Effects of initial abstinence and programmed lapses on the relative reinforcing effects of cigarette smoking. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 41, 481-497. PMID: 19192854, PMCID: PMC2606599
  • Dunn, K.E., Sigmon, S.C., Thomas, C.S., Heil, S. & Higgins, S.T. (2008). Voucher-based contingent reinforcement of smoking abstinence among methadone-maintained patients: A pilot study. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. 41, 527-538. PMID: 19192857, PMCID: PMC2606604
  • Heil, S.H., Higgins, S.T., Bernstein, I.M., Solomon, L.J., Thomas, C.S., Badger, G.J., Lynch, M.E. (2008). Effects of voucher-based incentives on abstinence from cigarette smoking and fetal growth among pregnant women. Addiction, 103, 1009-1018. PMID: 18482424, PMCID: PMC2731575
  • Dunn, K.E., Sigmon, S.C., Reimann, E., Heil, S.H., & Higgins, S.T. (2009). Effects of smoking cessation on illicit drug use among opioid maintenance patients. Journal of Drug Issues, Vol. 39(2), 313-328. PMID: 20401340
  • Garcia-Rodriguez, O. Secades-Villa, R., Higgins, S.T., Carballo, J.L., Díaz. S.A., Errasti Perez, J.M. and Fernandez-Hermida, J. R. (2009). Effects of voucher-based intervention on abstinence and retention in an outpatient treatment for cocaine addiction: A randomized controlled trial. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 17, 131-138. PMID: 19586227
  • Dunn, K.E., Sigmon, S.C., Reimann, E.F., Badger, G.J., Heil, S.H. & Higgins, S.T. (2010). A contingency-management intervention to promote initial smoking cessation among opioid-maintained patients. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 18, 37-50. PMID: 20158293

Follow-up Studies/Reviews/Book Chapters

  • Higgins, S.T., Budney, A.J., & Delaney, D.D. (1992). Behavior analysis in the treatment of cocaine dependence. In J. Cohen - Y'Nez, J.L. Amezcua-Gaste'Lum, J. Villarreal, and L. Salazar
  • Zayala (Eds.), International symposium on drug dependence: From the molecular to the social level, (pp. 327-334). Elsevier.
  • Grabowski, J., Higgins, S.T., & Kirby, K.C. (1993). Behavioral treatments of cocaine dependence. In F.M. Timms and C.G. Leukefeld (Eds.), NIDA Research Monograph No.135: Cocaine treatment: Research and clinical perspectives, (pp. 133-149). Rockville, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse.
  • Higgins, S.T., & Budney, A.J. (1993). Treatment of cocaine dependence via the principles of behavior analysis and behavioral pharmacology. In L.S. Onken, J.D. Blaine, and J.J. Boren (Eds.), NIDA research monograph 137: Behavioral treatments for drug abuse and dependence, (pp. 97-121). Rockville, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse.
  • Higgins, S.T., Budney, A.J., & Bickel, W.K. (1994). Applying behavioral concepts and principles to the treatment of cocaine dependence. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 34, 87-97. PMID: 8026305
    Budney, A. J., & Higgins, S.T. (1995). Psychological treatment for cocaine dependence. In J.H. Jaffe (Ed.), Encyclopedia of drug and alcohol. New York, NY: Simon and Schuster Macmillan Library Reference, pp. 1095-1101.
  • Higgins, S.T., & Budney, A.J. (1995). Contingency contracts in the treatment of drug dependence. In J. Jaffe (Ed.), Encyclopedia of drug and alcohol. New York, NY: Simon and Schuster Macmillan Library Reference, pp. 317-319.
  • Higgins, S.T., & Budney, A.J. (1995). Behavior modification in the treatment of drug dependence. In J. Jaffe (Ed.), Encyclopedia of drug and alcohol. New York, NY: Simon and Schuster Macmillan Library Reference, pp. 1146-1149.
  • Higgins, S.T., Budney, A.J., Bickel, W.K., Badger, G.J., Foerg, F.E., & Ogden, D. (1995). Outpatient behavioral treatment for cocaine dependence: One-year outcome. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 3, 205-212.
  • Higgins, S.T. (1996). Some potential contributions of reinforcement and consumer-demand theory to reducing cocaine use. Addictive Behaviors, 21, 803-816. PMID: 8904945
  • Higgins, S.T. (1997). The influence of alternative reinforcers on cocaine use and abuse. A brief review. Pharmacology Biochemistry & Behavior, 57, 419-427. PMID: 9218266
  • Higgins, S.T. (1997). Behavioral choice theory can enhance our understanding of drug dependence and other behavioral disorders. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 19, 579-580.
  • Higgins, S.T., & Budney, A.J. (1997). From the initial clinic contact to aftercare: A brief review of effective strategies for retaining cocaine abusers in treatment. In L.S. Onken, J.D. Blaine, and J.J. Boren (Eds.), NIDA Research Monograph: No.165, Beyond the therapeutic alliance: Keeping drug-dependent individuals in treatment, pp. 25-43. Rockville, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse.
  • Higgins, S.T., Tidey, J.W., & Stitzer, M.L. (1998). Community reinforcement and contingency management in the treatment of alcohol, cocaine, and opioid dependence. In A.W. Graham and T.K. Schultz (Eds.), ASAM principles of addiction medicine, 2nd Edition, pp. 675-690.
  • Preston, K.L., Silverman, K., Higgins, S.T., Brooner, R.K., Montoya, I., Schuster, C.R., & Cone, E.J. (1998). Cocaine use early in treatment predicts outcome in a behavioral treatment program. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66, 691-696. PMID: 9735588
  • Higgins, S.T. (1999). Applying behavioral economics to the challenge of reducing cocaine abuse. In F.J. Chaloupka, M. Grossman, W.K. Bickel, and H. Saffer (Eds.), Proceedings of the economic analysis of substance use and abuse: An integration of economic and behavioral economic research, pp. 157-174. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
  • Higgins, S.T. (1999). Introduction. In S.T. Higgins and K. Silverman (Eds.), Motivating behavior change among illicit-drug abusers: Research on contingency-management interventions, Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, pp. 3-13.
  • Higgins, S.T. (1999). Principles of learning in the study and treatment of drug dependence: The challenge of applying what we've learned. In M. Galanter, and H.D. Kleber (Eds.), Textbook of substance abuse treatment, (2nd ed.), pp. 67-73. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.
  • Higgins, S.T. (1999). Potential contributions of the community reinforcement approach and contingency management to broadening the base of substance abuse treatment. In J.A. Tucker, D.M. Donovan, and G.A. Marlatt (Eds.), Changing addictive behavior: Bridging clinical and public health strategies, pp. 283-306. New York: Guilford Publications, Inc.
  • Higgins, S.T., & Petry, N.M. (1999). Contingency management: Incentives for sobriety. Alcohol Health & Research World, 23, 122-127. PMID: 10890806
  • Higgins, S.T., Roll, J.M., Wong, C.J., & Tidey, J.W. (1999). Clinic and laboratory studies on the use of incentives to decrease cocaine and other substance use. In S.T. Higgins and K. Silverman (Eds.), Motivating behavior change among illicit-drug abusers: Contemporary research on contingency-management interventions, pp. 35-56. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  • Heil, S.H., Wong, C.J., & Higgins, S.T. (2000). Community reinforcement approach combined with contingent vouchers for the treatment of cocaine dependence. The Addictions Newsletter, Division 50 of the American Psychological Association, 7, 24-26.
  • Higgins, S.T., Badger, G.J., & Budney, A.J. (2000). Initial abstinence and success in achieving longer-term cocaine abstinence. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 8, 377-386. PMID: 10975629
  • Budney, A.J., Sigmon, S.C., & Higgins, S.T. (2001). Contingency management: Using science to motivate change. In R.H. Coombs (Ed.) Addiction recovery tools: A practical handbook (pp. 147-172). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
  • Carroll, M.E., Bickel, W.K., & Higgins, S.T. (2001). Nondrug incentives to treatment drug abuse: A promising strategy developed in animals and humans. In M.E. Carroll and J.B. Overmier (Eds.), Linking animal research and human psychological health (pp. 139-154). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  • Higgins, S.T. (2001). A promising intervention for a daunting problem: Comments on Silverman and colleagues' therapeutic workplace for drug-dependent, pregnant women. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 9, 27-28. PMID: 11519630
  • Higgins, S.T., & Abbott, P. (2001). Community reinforcement approach and treatment of cocaine and opioid dependence. In R.J. Meyers and W.R. Miller (Eds.), A community reinforcement approach to addiction treatment (pp. 123-146). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
  • Higgins, S.T., Budney, A.J., & Sigmon, S.C. (2001). Cocaine dependence. In D.H. Barlow (Ed.), Clinical Handbook of Psychological Disorders, 3rd ed. New York: Guilford Publications, Inc., pp. 434-469.
  • Higgins, S.T., & Heil, S. (2001). Behavioral treatments. In R.C. DeWitt (Ed.), Encyclopedia of drugs, alcohol, and addictive behavior, 2nd Ed. (pp. 1225-1227). New York: Macmillan Reference USA.
  • Higgins, S.T., & Heil, S. (2001). Contingency management. In R.C. DeWitt, (Ed.), Encyclopedia of drugs, alcohol, and addictive behavior, 2nd Ed. (pp. 1231-1233). New York: Macmillan Reference, USA.
  • Higgins, S.T., Alessi, S.M. & Dantona, R.L. (2002). Voucher-based incentives. A substance abuse treatment innovation. Addictive Behaviors, 27, 887-910. PMID: 12369474
  • Higgins, S.T., Sigmon, S.C., & Budney, A.J. (2002). Psychosocial treatment of cocaine dependence: The community reinforcement plus vouchers approach. In S.G. Hofmann and M.C. Tompson (Eds.), Handbook of psychosocial treatments for severe mental disorders (pp 296-313). New York: Guilford Publications, Inc.
  • Budney, A.J., Sigmon, S.C., & Higgins, S.T. (2003). Contingency management in the substance abuse treatment clinic. In F. Rotgers, S.T. Walters and J. Morgenstern (Eds.), Treating substance abuse: Theory and technique (pp. 279-297). New York: Guilford Press.
  • Higgins, S.T., & Heil, S.H. (2003). Urine the money: Voucher-based incentive scheme for drug treatment. Drug Link, 18, 11-12.
  • Higgins, S.T., Sigmon, S.C., Wong, C.J., Heil, S.H., Badger, G.J., Donham, R., Dantona, R.L., & Anthony, S. (2003). Community reinforcement therapy for cocaine-dependent outpatients. Archives of General Psychiatry, 60, 1043-1052. PMID: 14557150
  • Higgins, S.T., Silverman, K., & Heil, S.H., (2003). Behavior interventions for problem drinking: Community reinforcement and contingency management. In B.A. Johnson, P. Ruiz, and M. Galanter (Eds.), Alcoholism: A practical handbook (pp. 111-118). Baltimore, MD: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins.
  • Higgins, S.T., & Tidey, J.W. (2003). Community reinforcement and contingency management interventions. In A.W. Graham, T.K. Schultz, and B.B. Wilford (Eds.), Principles of addiction medicine, (pp. 873-889).
  • Silverman, K., Higgins, S.T., & Bickel, W.K. (2003). The therapeutic workplace: Applied behavior analysis in the treatment of drug dependence. In K.S. Budd and T. Stokes (Eds.), A small matter of proof: The legacy of Donald M. Baer (pp. 195-210). Reno, NV: Context press.
  • Higgins, S.T. & Heil, S.H. (2004). Drug abuse: Behavioral treatment. In N.B. Anderson (Ed.), Encyclopedia of health and behavior, Volume 1, (pp 265-269). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
  • Sigmon, S.C., Correia, C., & Stitzer, M.L. (2004). Cocaine abstinence during methadone maintenance: Effects of repeated exposure to voucher-based reinforcement and predictive utility for response to abstinence incentive interventions. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 12(4), 269-275. PMID: 15571444
  • Correia, C.J., Sigmon, S.C., Silverman, K., Bigelow, G., & Stitzer, M.L. (2005). A comparison of voucher delivery schedules for the initiation of cocaine abstinence. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 13, 253-258. PMID: 16173889
  • Mueser, K.T., Drake, R.E., Sigmon, S.C., & Brunette, M.F. (2005). Psychosocial interventions for adults with severe mental illness and co-occurring substance use disorders: A review of specific interventions. Journal of Dual Diagnosis, 1(2), 57-82.
  • Rosado, J., Sigmon, S.C., Jones, H., Chilsolm, C., & Stitzer, M.L. (2005). Cash value of voucher reinforcers in pregnant drug-dependent women. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 13, 41-47. PMID: 15727502
  • Sigmon, S.C. & Stitzer, M.L. (2005). Use of a low-cost incentive intervention to improve counseling attendance among methadone-maintained patients. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 29, 253-258. PMID: 16311177
  • Budney, A.J., Moore, B.A., Sigmon, S.C. & Higgins, S.T. (2006). Contingency-management interventions for cannabis dependence. In R.A. Roffman and R.S. Stephens (Eds.) Cannabis dependence: Its nature, consequences, and treatment (pp. 154 - 176). United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.
  • Higgins, S.T. (2006). Extending contingency management to the treatment of methamphetamine use disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry,163, 1870-1872. PMID: 17074933
  • Lussier, J.P., Heil, S.H, Mongeon, J.A., Badger, G.J. & Higgins, S.T. (2006). A meta-analysis of voucher-based reinforcement therapy for substance use disorders. Addiction, 101, 192-203. PMID: 16445548
  • Higgins, S.T., Heil, S.H., Sigmon, S.C. (2007). A behavioral approach to the treatment of substance use disorders. In P. Sturmey (Ed.), The handbook of functional analysis and clinical psychology: Practical resources for the mental health practitioner (pp. 261-282). Netherlands: Elsevier Press.
  • Sigmon, S.C. (2007). Investigating the pharmacological and nonpharmacological factors that modulate drug reinforcement. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 15(1), 1-20. PMID: 17295581
  • Sigmon, S.C., Dunn, K., & Higgins, S.T. (2007). Brief history of the contingency management working group at the annual meeting of The College on Problems of Drug Dependence. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 89, 314-316.
  • Sigmon, S.C. & Stitzer, M.L. (2007). Low-cost incentives to improve counseling attendance. Counselor Magazine, 8(1), 32-38.
  • Garcia-Rodriguez, O., Secades-Villa, R., Higgins, S.T., Fernandez-Hermida, J.R. and Carballo, J.L. (2008). Financing a voucher program for cocaine abusers through community donations in Spain. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 41, 623-628. PMID: 19192866, PMCID: PMC2606591
  • Heil, S.H., Yoon, J.H. & Higgins, S.T., (2008). Pregnant and Postpartum Women. In S.T. Higgins, K. Silverman, & S.H. Heil (Eds.), Contingency Management in Substance Abuse Treatment (pp. 182-201). New York, NY: The Guilford Press.
  • Higgins, S.T., Heil, S.H., Rogers, R.E., & Chivers, L. (2008). Cocaine. In S.T. Higgins, K. Silverman, & S.H. Heil (Eds.), Contingency Management in Substance Abuse Treatment (pp. 19-41). New York, NY: The Guilford Press.
  • Higgins, S.T., Sigmon, S.C. & Heil, S.T. (2008). Drug abuse and dependence. In D.H. Barlow (Ed.), Clinical Handbook of Psychological Disorders, 4th ed. New York: Guilford Publications, Inc., pp. 547-577.
  • Sigmon, S.C., Lamb, R.J., & Dallery, J. (2008). Contingency management for reducing tobacco use. In S.T. Higgins, K. Silverman, & S.H. Heil (Eds.), Contingency Management in Substance Abuse Treatment. New York: The Guilford Press, pp. 99-119.
  • Higgins, S.T. & Silverman, K., (2008). Contingency Management. In M. Galanter and H.D. Kleber (Eds.) Textbook of substance abuse treatment (4th ed.). (pp. 387-399). The American Psychiatric Press.
  • Higgins, S.T. & Silverman, K. (2008). Introduction. In S.T. Higgins, K. Silverman, & S.H. Heil (Eds.), Contingency Management in Substance Abuse Treatment. (pp. 1-15). New York, NY: The Guilford Press.
  • Rogers, R. E., Higgins, S. T., Silverman, K, G., Thomas, C., Badger, _G. J., Stitzer, M., Bigelow, G. (2008). Abstinence-contingent reinforcement and engagement in non-drug related activities among illicit drug abusers. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 22, 544-50. PMID: 19071979, PMCID: PMC2825151
  • Silverman, K., Roll, J.M. & Higgins, S.T. (2008). Introduction to the special issue on the behavior analysis and treatment of drug addiction. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 41, 471-480. PMID: 19192853, PMCID: PMC2606609
  • Higgins, S.T. and Rogers, R.E. (2009). Contingency management and community reinforcement approach. In Peter M. Miller (Ed.). Evidence-based addiction treatment (pp. 249-267). Burlington: Academic Press, Elsevier Inc.
  • Higgins, S.T. (2009). Comments on contingency management and conditional cash transfers. Health Economics. PMID: 19670269, NIHMS ID# 137970
  • Higgins, S. T., Heil, S. H., & Sigmon, S. C. (2010). Voucher-based contingency management in the treatment of substance use disorders. In_ G. J. Madden (Ed.), APA Handbook of Behavior Analysis. Washington, DC:_ American Psychological Association.
  • Higgins, T.M., Higgins, S.T., Heil, S.H., Badger, G.J., Skelly, J.M., Bernstein, I.M., Solomon, L.J., Washio, Y. & Preston, A.M. (2010). Effects of cigarette smoking cessation on breastfeeding duration. Nicotine and Tobacco Research. PMID: 20339141
  • Higgins, S.T., Bernstein, I.M. , Washio, Y., Heil, S.H., Badger, G.J., Skelly, J.M., Higgins, T.M., & Solomon, L.J. (in press). Effects of smoking cessation with voucher-based contingency management on birth outcomes. Addiction. NIHMSID # 207216
  • Higgins, S.T. & Heil, S.H. (in press). Contingency management. In G. L. Fisher, & N. Roget (Eds.). The encyclopedia of substance abuse prevention, treatment, and recovery, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
  • Higgins, S.T., Heil, S.H., Rogers, R.E. (in press). Treatment and Behavioral approaches to Contingency Management. In P. Korsmeyer & H. R. Kranzler (Eds.) Encyclopedia of drugs, alcohol and addictive behaviors (3rd ed.).
  • Higgins, S.T., Heil, S.H. & Sigmon, S.C. (in press). Contingency management approaches in drug dependence. In Ian Stolerman (Ed.) Encyclopedia of Psychopharmacology, Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
  • Higgins, S.T., Sigmon, S.C. & Heil, S.H. (in press). Contingency management in the treatment of substance use disorders: Trends in the literature. In P. Ruiz & E. Strain, (Eds.), Lowinson & Ruiz's Substance Abuse: A comprehensive textbook, (5th ed.). Baltimore, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
  • Higgins, S.T., Tidey, J.W. & Rogers, R.E. (in press). Contingency management and community reinforcement approach. In R.K. Ries, D.A. Fiellin, S.C. Miller, & R. Saitz (Eds.), ASAM principles of addiction medicine (4th ed.) Baltimore, MD: Lippincott, Williams, & Wilkins.
  • Silverman, K., Kaminski, B.J., Higgins, S.T., Brady, J.V. (in press). Behavior analysis and treatment of drug addiction. In W.W. Fisher, C.C. Piazza & H.S. Roane (Eds.). Handbook of applied behavior analysis, New York, NY. Gilford Publications, Inc.
  • Saulsgiver, K., Sigmon, S.C., Dunn, K.E., Badger, G.J., Yoon, J., Bradstreet, M., Reimann, E., Heil. S.H. & Higgins, S.T. (in preparation). Baseline delay discounting predicts response to a behavioral intervention for smoking cessation.